Major Rivers of J&K
The State of J&K is considered as a paradise on earth with ample water resources such as lakes, rivers, and glaciers besides groundwater. The main rivers that flow through the State are Jhelum, Chenab, Indus and Tawi and are of Himalayan origin. The other great rivers that originate from glaciers in the Himalayan region are the Ganges and the Yamuna. Important lakes in the J&K region are Manasabal Lake, Dal Lake, Nageen Lake and the Wular Lake. There are 1230 water bodies in the State.
Following are some of the major rivers in the State:
The river Jhelum is commonly known as 'The Veth'. The river flows throughout the length of the valley. This river flows as a muddy stream and is a famous tourist attraction, especially the nine old brides that have been made over it all along in the Srinagar city. The source of this famous river is Verinag spring in district Anantnag. In the Valley of Kashmir this river has a length of about 203 kms. After passing through Srinagar it flows into the Wular Lake, which is regarded as its delta and then passing through Baramulla and Uri, it flows to Pakistan. Srinagar, Anantnag and Baramulla cities are situated on both sides of this river. Most of the electricity generated in Kashmir Valley is generated by the Hydel projects constructed on this river.
The Indus river originates at the confluence of the Sind river and the Gar River, which is Mansaror Lake in Tibet. This river takes a lengthy and tortuous course and passes through the Kashmir region. It is the longest river in the subcontinent. While it is about 3500 kms long, 1500 km of it flows through Jammu and Kashmir. The river is excellent for those interested in water rafting. The river banks are flanked by steep hills that have pine and deodar vegetation. The Indus River flows in between the Ladakh range and the Zanskar range. Indus has several tributaries, principal among them are Gilgit River, Gumal River and Kabul River.
The merging of two Himalayan rivers forms the river Chenab. These are the Chandra River and the Bhaga River. Thus, the river Chenab is popularly known as the Chandrabhaga. This river is also well known for its historical importance. This river enters J&K near Paddar at Kishtwar. The river Wadwan joins it near Akhnoor. It enters the plains of Jammu and then enters into Pakistan. Rambir and Partap canal takes off from it near Akhnoor as a result of which thousands of Kanals of agricultural land in Jammu is irrigated. Salal, Dulhasiti, Sawalkot and Baghilar Hydel power projects are located on this river.
This river is famous for its ice-cold water and trout Fish. Kishan Ganga River is in Drass (Kargil) in inner Himalayas. After passing through the mountain tracks of Gurez, Keran and Karnah it joins the Jhelum at Doemel. Kishan Ganga hydro-electric Project is situated on this river.
The source of Tawi is the Kailash Kund Spring at Soej hills in Bhaderwah. After flowing through the Chennani and Udhampur, Tawi passes through Jammu and joins the Chenab in Ranbir Singh Pora and then enters Pakistan. Chennani hydro electric power project constructed on River Tawi has a capacity to generate 23 MW of power.
Ravi is a Trans boundary river flowing through northwestern India and Northeastern Pakistan. After the partition of India in 1947, the waters of River Ravi alongwith five other rivers of the Indus system (Beas, Sutlej, Chenab, Jhelum and Indus) keep India and Pakistan under the Indus Water Treaty and form the headquarters of Indus Basin. The river drains a total catchment area of 14442 sq kms in India after flowing for a length of 720 kms. A major tributary that joins Ravi is Siawa near Basholi in the State. Ujh River is another major tributary of Ravi and its source is located in the Kailash Mountains at an elevation of 14,100 ft close to Bhaderwah Mountains of the State. After flowing for 100 kms stretch, it joins Ravi at Nainkot in Pakistan. It flows along the Indo-Pak border for about 80 kms, before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab. The major multipurpose project built on this river is Ranjit Sagar Dam at Thein village. The left bank of Ravi is in Punjab and the right bank is in J&K State.
(Data Source: State of Environment Report, J&K, 2012-13)