Ground Water Resource

Status of GW

Ground water scenario of Jammu & Kashmir for the year 2017

Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh are the three regions of Jammu & Kashmir state representing different ground water regimes. In Outer Plains of Jammu Region, extending between River Ravi in the east to Munawar Tawi in the west, the ground water occurs in piedmont deposits belonging to upper Pleistocene to Recent age, comprising unconsolidated sediments in the form of terraces and coalescent alluvial fans developed by the streams debauching out of Siwalik Hills. There exist a number of isolated valleys in middle Himalayas where ground wateroccurs in valley fill deposits comprising of lacustrine to fluvio-glacial sediments. Ground water in such valleys generally occurs under confined conditions. Kashmir valley covers an area of 5600 km and is occupied by Karewas that consist of a huge pile of alternating bands of sand, silt and clay interspersed by glacial boulder beds. The sands are mostly fine to very fine grained and there is considerable lateral facies variation in the nature of sediments with an aggregate thickness of 2500-3000 m. Ground water in the Karewas of Kashmir valley occurs under both confined as well as unconfined conditions. In Leh plains of Ladakh Region, the sediments comprise of morainic and fluvio-glacial boulders, cobbles underlain by lacustrine deposits consisting of clay and silt. About 15000 sq. km. area in Jammu Region is occupied by
hilly terrain, comprising soft or friable sandstones, Clays, Shales, Conglomerates to hard traps and metamorphic such as quartzite and crystalline limestone ranging in age from Precambrian (Salkhala series) to Miocene. The Ground water resources of the state of Jammu
& Kashmir have been assessed for valley areas and outer plains of 22 districts of the State.

The total recharge of ground water involves several components and the rainfall being the major one. The other components are seepage from canal and return flow from surface water and ground water irrigation. Total Annual Groundwater Recharge of the State has been estimated as 2.89bcm and Annual Extractable Ground Water Resources is 2.60bcm. The Total Current Annual Ground Water extraction is 0.76bcm and the Stage of Ground Water extraction is 29%. All the assessment units have been categorized as ‘Safe’.

As compared to the 2013assessment, the Total Annual Groundwater Recharge and Annual Extractable Ground Water Resources have decreased from 5.25 to 2.89bcm and 4.82 to 2.60 bcm respectively. The Annual Ground Water extraction has decreased from 1.18 to 0.76 bcm.
The Stage of Groundwater Extraction has increased from 24.4% to 29.5%.The changes in area due to local revenue records and reduction in rainfall recharge have resulted in reduction of recharge. A reduction in draft is observed due to revision of well census data on the basis
of functional wells. However, there is no change in categorization

District wise Dyanamic Ground water Resources of Jammu & Kashmir for the Year 2017
S.NO. District Ground Water recharge Total Natural
Discharges
Annual
Extractable
Ground Water
Resource
Current Annual Ground Water Extraction Annual GW
Allocation for for
Domestic Use as
on 2025
Net Ground
Water
Availability for
future use
Stage of
Ground Water
Extraction (%)
Monsoon season Non monsoon season Total Annual
Ground Water
Recharge
Irrigation Industrial Domestic Total
Recharge from
rainfall
Recharge from other sources
Recharge from
rainfall
Recharge from other sources
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 Anantnag  9864.26 2186.24 10852.62 1417.71 24320.83 2432.08 21888.7 420.8 37.8 3626.64 4085.24 3626.64 17803.5 18.66
2 Kulgam  586.37 3115.84 643.68 1688.08 6033.96 603.4 5430.57 147.28 29.16 1650.38 1826.82 1650.38 3603.74 33.64
3 Pulwama  4094.65 3037.61 5602.13 1738.18 14472.58 1447.26 13025.3 252.29 15.12 3195.65 3463.06 3195.65 9562.27 26.59
4 Shopian  1176.36 1653.74 1609.45 1141.71 5581.26 558.13 5023.14 100.8 27 1336.04 1463.84 1336.04 3559.3 29.14
5 Srinagar  4603.95 2334.44 4958.58 1707.89 13604.86 1360.49 12244.4 662.26 136.66 3122.06 3920.98 3122.06 8323.4 32.02
6 Ganderbal  343.14 1241.96 369.58 1567.93 3522.61 352.26 3170.35 420.48 20.85 336.38 777.72 336.38 2392.63 24.53
7 Budgam  4459.39 3521.72 5429.76 4716.56 18127.42 1812.74 16314.7 662.26 78.88 4036.61 4777.74 4036.61 11536.94 29.28
8 Baramulla  18092.1 1781.47 11360.5 2381.86 33615.94 3361.59 30254.3 2112.91 927.5 5918.26 8958.67 5918.26 21295.68 29.61
9 Bandipora  806.2 1470.64 506.24 1869.59 4652.68 465.27 4187.41 367.92 66.5 1671.41 2105.83 1671.41 2081.58 50.29
10 Kupwara  6184.32 2828.72 4898.4 3678.86 17590.3 1759.03 15831.3 388.94 35 3132.58 3556.52 3132.58 12274.75 22.47
11 Leh  3305.79 16.12 6769.84 19.7 10111.46 1011.15 9100.31 89.86 20.7 1587.31 1697.87 1587.31 7402.45 18.66
12 Kargil  109.44 4.34 583.2 5.31 702.29 70.23 632.06 24.19 4.14 58.75 87.08 58.75 544.97 13.78
13 Jammu  21456.28 18681.78 12119.88 18729.59 70987.52 7098.75 63888.8 8201.16 2428.27 9513.36 20142.79 9513.36 43745.98 31.53
14 Samba  5816.84 1032.1 3285.72 1405.12 11539.78 1153.98 10385.8 1419.12 126.12 1566.29 3111.53 1566.29 7274.27 29.96
15 Udhampur  412.82 331.31 3046.78 496.18 4287.09 428.71 3858.38 336.38 141.24 1019.66 1497.29 1019.66 2361.09 38.81
16 Reasi  66.14 294.78 488.11 450.25 1299.27 129.93 1169.34 178.7 52.56 494.06 725.33 494.06 444.02 62.03
17 Kathua  12143.32 6231.1 5756.7 7598.56 31729.68 3172.97 28556.7 2611.47 1019.66 5350.61 8981.74 5350.61 19574.96 31.45
18 Doda  504.82 18.86 1880.21 23.05 2426.94 242.69 2184.25 105.12 17.61 557.14 679.86 557.14 1504.39 31.13
19 Kishtwar  428.33 5.65 1452.7 6.91 1893.59 189.36 1704.23 31.5 0 147.17 178.67 147.17 1525.56 10.48
20 Ramban  295.75 5.65 1101.54 6.91 1409.85 140.98 1268.86 31.5 17.5 94.5 143.5 94.5 1125.36 11.31
21 Rajouri  1819.72 307.42 1229.9 454.89 3811.94 381.19 3430.74 304.5 17.5 1103.76 1425.76 1103.76 2004.98 41.56
22 Poonch  2948.92 128.74 4051.75 157.34 7286.75 728.67 6558.07 717.5 1331.5 17.5 2066.5 17.5 4491.57 31.51
Total (Ham)  99518.93 50230.23 87997.26 51262.17 289008.58 28900.86 260108 19586.94 6551.26 49536.12 75674.33 49536.12 184433.4 29.47
Total (Bcm)  0.995 0.502 0.88 0.513 2.89 0.289 2.601 0.196 0.066 0.495 0.757 0.495 1.844 29.4
Source: Central  GWb2017.PDF

 

Ground water scenario of Jammu & Kashmir for the year 2013

The ground water resources of the state of Jammu & Kashmir have been estimated for valley areas and outer plains of 22 districts of the State. The total recharge of ground water involves several components and the rainfall being the major one. The other components are seepage
from canal and return flow from surface water and groundwater irrigation. The annual replenishable ground water resource of the state has been estimated as 5.25 bcm and net annual ground water availability is 4.82 bcm. The annual ground water draft is 1.18 bcm and the stage of ground water development is 24%. All the assessment units have been categorized as ‘Safe’.

As compared to the 2011 estimates, the annual replenishable ground water resource and net ground water availability has increased from 4.25 bcm to 5.25 bcm and 3.83 bcm to 4.82 bcm respectively. This is due to increased rainfall and recharge from other sources. The annual ground water draft has increased from 0.81 bcm to 1.18 bcm. This is attributed to increase in ground water structures for domestic and industrial purposes.

District wise Dyanamic Ground water Resources Availibility, Utilization and StageOF Development of Jammu& kashmir for the year 2013(As on march2013)
S.NO. District Annual replenishbleGround Water resource Total Natural
Discharges
Annual
Extractable
Ground Water
Resource
Current Annual Ground Water Extraction Annual GW
Allocation for for
Domestic Use as
on 2025
Net Ground
Water
Availability for
future use
Stage of
Ground Water
Extraction (%)
Monsoon season Non monsoon season Total Annual
Ground Water
Recharge
Irrigation domestic/ industrial Total
Recharge from
rainfall
Recharge from other sources
Recharge from
rainfall
Recharge from other sources
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 Jammu  28532.97 38738.1 12475.16 19457.2 99203.38 9814.14 89389 12093 10847.6 22940.6 9398.36 67897.88 26
2 Samba  7746.98 6724.3 3453.45 6136.45 24061.18 3196.07 20865 900 5115 6015 2175.6 17789.51 29
3 Kathua  15978.08 17400.4 5968.769 10288.45 49635.7 3943.93 45692 5469 3830.2 9299.2 4597.19 35625.58 20
4 Srinagar  2150.11 9199.2 1852.58 31.17 13233.06 880.43 12353 264 7920 8184 9761.26 2327.37 66
5 Ganderbal  1899.28 9407.2 5324.4 122.85 16753.73 780.77 15973 235.5 4260.8 4496.3 3505.69 12231.77 28
6 Anantnag  5642.06 31695.4 4955.92 779.7 43073.09 2550.471 40523 34.5 6239.6 6274.1 13460.78 27027.34 15
7 Kulgam  2063.79 15533.4 1812.81 1524.9 20934.9 2550.471 18384 34.5 5525.1 5559.6 2192.536 16157.4 30
8 Baramulla  21573.57 23093 10837.28 943.05 56446.91 4688.49 51758 364.5 4924.4 5288.9 7996.1 43397.82 10
9 Bandipora  2049.31 8124 1029.45 1003.8 12206.56 465.925 11741 36 5150.9 5186.9 2581.2 9123.44 44
10 Badgam  5640.595 21463.6 5494.4 2846.4 35444.995 2963.173 32482 61.5 8651.5 8713 6302.07 26118.25 27
11 Pulwama  5118.32 22665.6 5602.13 1093.8 34479.85 2378.736 32101 30 7902.9 7932.9 5390.95 26680.16 25
12 Shopian  1470.46 17090.2 1609.45 119.22 20289.33 710.53 19579 21 4800.3 4821.3 2299 17258.8 25
13 Kupwara  7730.4 15819.8 4898.4 64.65 28513.25 2105.5 26408 24 4857.6 4881.6 9562.16 16821.59 18
14 Udhampur  3775.78 1918.2 2267.12 3178 11139.1 452.31 10687 7.5 2956.8 2964.3 4199.4 6479.89 28
15 Reasi  1211.862 1560 734.95 2266.35 5773.16 195.97 5577.2 7.5 2442.5 2450 2810.76 2758.93 44
16 Ramban  216.72 4851.8 655.11 510 6233.63 567 5666.6 0 2772 2772 2873.86 2792.77 49
17 Rajouri  4549.29 3314.2 2565.42 750.75 11179.66 1179.95 9999.7 235.5 3388.5 3624 5694.216 4069.99 34
18 Kishtwar  443.83 4656.6 1224.52 911.55 7236.5 710.32 6526.2 0 382.8 382.8 1756.21 4769.97 6
19 Poonch  2994.72 5393.4 3291.74 522.3 12202.16 1043.4 11159 4.5 3748.8 3753.3 4364.34 6789.92 34
20 Doda  162.73 6895 492.21 1767 9316.94 848.06 8468.9 6 1813.4 1819.4 3672.09 4790.79 21
21 Kargil  227.09 1480.05 1452.15 240.6 3399.89 158.337 3241.6 0 138 138 1064.99 2176.56 4
22 Leh*  723.8 1498.35 1239.59 398.25 3859.99 410.442 3449.6 6 124.6 130.6 1258.97 2184.59 4
Total (ham) 121901.8 268522 79237.01 54956.44 524616.97 42594.43 482023 19834.5 97793.3 117628 106917.7 355270.3 24
Total (bcm) 1.22 2.69 0.79 0.55 5.25 0.43 4.82 0.2 0.98 1.18 1.07 3.55 24
Source: Dyanamic GWRE-2013-PDF

Ground water scenario of Jammu & Kashmir for the year 2011

The dynamic ground water resources of Jammu & Kashmir have been estimated for valley areas and outer plains of all districts of the State. The total recharge of ground water involves several components and the rainfall being the major one. The other components are seepage from canal and return irrigation flow from surface water and ground water.

The Annual Replenishable Ground Water resource of the State has been estimated as 4.25 bcm and Net Annual Ground Water Availability is 3.83 bcm. The Annual Ground Water Draft is 0.81 bcm and the Stage of Ground Water Development is 21%. The entire assessment unit falls under Safe Category. As compared to the 2009 estimates, the Net Ground Water Availability has increased by 15% and the Gross GW Draft has increased by 10%. The change in the Net Ground Water Availability is due to the refinements in theparameter.

The high ground water development in Srinagar can be attributed to low recharge due to the presence of Karewas, which has low specific yield, less rechargeable valley area and small valley portion of Udhampur district.Assessment units are categorized for Jammu and Kathua districts based on both stage of ground water development and long-term trend of water levels. For rest of the districts, state of ground water development is the sole criteria for categorization.

District wise Dyanamic Ground water Resources Availibility, Utilization and StageOF Development of Jammu& kashmir for the year 2011(As on march2011)
S.NO. District Annual replenishbleGround Water resource Total Natural
Discharges
Annual
Extractable
Ground Water
Resource
Current Annual Ground Water Extraction Annual GW
Allocation for for
Domestic Use as
on 2025
Net Ground
Water
Availability for
future use
Stage of
Ground Water
Extraction (%)
Monsoon season Non monsoon season Total Annual
Ground Water
Recharge
Irrigation domestic/ industrial Total
Recharge from
rainfall
Recharge from other sources
Recharge from
rainfall
Recharge from other sources
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 Jammu  39840 55640 10000 24622 130102 13010 117092 12993 8503 21496 9162 94937 18
2 Kathua  18613 21474 4637 8946 53671 5367 48304 5469 3127 8596 3793 39043 18
3 Srinagar  5908 8742 1474 488 16612 1661 14951 500 9328 9827 12304 2147 66
4 Anantnag  13245 34367 3300 98 51009 5101 45908 69 5014 5083 6447 39392 11
5 Baramulla  23040 22138 5760 832 51770 5177 46593 401 4071 4472 4959 41233 10
6 Badgam  9131 18127 2278 96 29632 2963 26669 62 7088 7150 8519 18088 27
7 Pulwama  9349 19182 2337 24 30893 3089 27803 90 7922 8012 10318 17395 29
8 Kupwara  8342 10607 2086 20 21055 2106 18950 24 4858 4882 6607 12318 26
9 Udhampur  2384 2892 597 611 6483 648 5835 15 2785 2800 3045 2775 48
10 Rajouri  6440 2967 1610 782 11800 1180 10620 231 3102 3333 4063 6326 31
11 Poonch  3920 4960 980 574 10434 1043 9391 5 3762 3767 4910 4476 40
12 Doda  2153 2919 492 407 5972 597 5374 6 1043 1049 1715 3654 20
13 Kargil  240 1283 60 0 1583 158 1425 0 132 132 167 1259 9
14 Leh  2640 804 660 0 4104 410 3694 12 40 52 55 3627 1
Total (ham) 145246 206103 36271 37500 425120 42512 382608 19875 60775 80650 76065 286668 21
Total (bcm) 1.45 2.06 0.36 0.37 4.25 0.43 3.83 0.2 0.61 0.81 0.76 2.87 21
Source:National Dynamic-GW-Resources-2011.pdf

Ground Water Resources of J&K


A) Categorization of Water Level

  • Total Ground Water Resources (in Hectares Meters) as on March 2009 : 7298664 ham or 72.99 bcm

B) Status of Ground Water

Table 1: Status of Ground Water in J&K as on March - 2009

1) Total Replnishable Ground Water Resources (in hectares Meter/Annum) 369510.29
2) Natural Discharges (in Hectares Meter/Annum) 36951.02
3) Available Ground Water Resource (In Million Hectares Meter/Annum) 332559.23
4) Provision for Industrial / Domestic & Other Uses (in Hectares Meter/Annum) 81919.20
5) Balance Ground Water (In Million Hectares Meter/Annum) 250640.03
6) Stage of Ground Water Development (In Percentage) 21.97 %
7) Utilizable Ground Water Resource For Irrigation In Net Terms (In Million Hectares Meter/Annum) 235185.08
8) Gross Draft Estimated On Pro data Basis for Industrial/Domesctic Uses(In Million Hectares Meter/Annum) 57987.60
9) Over Exploited Area (In Hectare Meter) NIL
10) Critical and Safe Area (In Hectare Meter) Critical-NIL Safe-Valley Areas of all Districts
11) Existing Quantity of Ground Water For Irrigation (In Hectare Meter) 15455.0
12) Net Ground Water Draft (In Hectare Meter) 73442.60

C) District wise Average Water Levels in J&K (as per NHS Data of 2013)

Table 2: District wise Average Water Levels in J&K (as per NHS Data of 2013) (Meters Below Ground Level)

S.No. District Pre Monsoon(Avg.) Post Monsoon(Avg.)
1) Jammu 7.24 5.02
2) Kathua 7.22 4.20
3) Rajouri 3.11 1.75
4) Udhampur 4.49 3.20
5) Anantnag 18.75 15.02
6) Budgam 2.52 5.38
7) Baramulla 1.21 3.48
8) Kupwara 3.29 5.40
9) Pulwama 5.57 6.44
10) Srinagar 10.30 10.14

(Data Source: Central Ground Water Board, Jammu)

 

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